Four Major Perspectives on Motivation
Intuitive motivation is a form of motivation that comes from within a person. It derives from their own interest in an activity and their own enjoyment of the activity. People who are intrinsically motivated often find it easier to achieve goals and overcome challenges. They are also less likely to turn to external rewards, and are more willing to try new things. Despite this, many people do not realize that intrinsic motivation is so powerful.
Integrated regulation refers to the belief that the individual identifies a goal and consciously integrates it into their own self-concept. Identification is a result of the individual’s recognition of a value in the behavior. The behavior is driven by this desire. Non-self-determined motivation is the result of external factors or the absence of a self-determined reason for the action. In such a situation, an employee’s behavior serves to satisfy a need for companionship.
The needs-oriented perspective refers to the belief that individuals have multiple distinct, interdependent needs. These goals are connected to a specific environment and may be either immediate or delayed. The most famous example of this perspective is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. This theory emphasizes the role of time in motivating individuals. It focuses on the role of deadlines in determining attention allocation. In addition, it highlights the role of self-efficacy in motivation.
The behavioral perspective views motivation as a system of outward behaviors that is rooted in theories of conditioning. This method focuses on the behaviors that are directly observed. The theory of behaviorism is based on the idea that people are motivated by a simple rewards system. Positive reinforcement acts as a moderator to an employee’s behavior, while negative reinforcement serves as a deterrent. Therefore, the behaviorist approach primarily focuses on the outward behavior.
The relational perspective describes motivation as a set of values that influence a person’s behavior. A person’s values are the basis of motivation. A value is a person’s reason for acting, and the reason for his or her actions is related to it. Hence, a value can affect a person’s action by influencing how they feel about their situation. Moreover, the relational perspective explains the meaning of a value.
The instrumentalist perspective is the most common in psychology. It focuses on the intrinsic desire to do right. It emphasizes the beliefs that a person’s actions are morally worthy. On the other hand, the sentimentalist perspective is based on his emotions. In other words, the sentimentalist view emphasizes the feelings that are present in a person. For instance, a feeling of sympathy for a person is the source of moral motivation.
The instrumentalist perspective, also known as the “Humean” perspective, focuses on the belief that an action is moral. The cognitivist perspective focuses on the beliefs that a person has about his or her actions. Its main objective is to create a positive effect in the world. The sentimentalist view argues that a person’s actions are influenced by his or her emotions.
The first perspective is internal. It is a perspective that allows the competing desires to prevail. As a result, moral motivation is defeasible. In other words, people who seem to be good at judgments may be insincere or lacking in moral competence. The internalist view is also the most common. The most fundamental and influential one is the earliest. Its implications are wide-ranging.
The second perspective, called the cognitive perspective, is the most widely accepted among the four perspectives. It focuses on the influence of people’s cognitions on their motivation. While there is a direct connection between the environment and the individual’s behavior, both types of perspectives focus on the role of the individual’s thoughts and emotions. This is the first of the four perspectives to identify a person’s inner state.