Pharmacodynamics: The study of how chemicals act on the body is usually done in the context of biology, but what is Pharmacology? Pharmacology is a branch of medicine that studies how different chemicals affect the living systems of the human body. This is very broad and includes such things as how drugs are absorbed, metabolized and excreted. In fact, pharmacology considers the whole of the human metabolic process, including digestion, absorption, exocytosis and disposal.
Pharmacology has been studied extensively over the years because its purpose is to provide information about how drugs work in the body so that doctors can prescribe the right drugs for patients with various illnesses and diseases. For instance, the actions of Amyloidal (A) antidepressants has been studied extensively over the last forty years. Antidepressants can be divided into two categories; non-steroidal (SSRI) and paroxetine (PXR). Non-steroidal anti-depressants have little effect on the brain, whereas SSRIs increase serotonin concentration in the brain and increase its receptors. This allows them to exert their effects on behavior and mood. Research has shown that although both drugs have similar effects on the brain, there are distinct differences between the levels of efficacy when it comes to drug efficacy.
Pharmacology and kinetics both deal with the way in which drugs are absorbed, metabolized and excreted from the body. Kinetics is concerned with how fast drugs are broken down in the liver, kidneys and blood stream. Pharmacology deals with the speed and rate at which drugs are released into the bloodstream. When comparing the effects of AEDs (automated external defibrillators) against aspirin, it may be safe to assume that the speed at which aspirin works on the heart is greater than that at which it does in the liver.
Pharmacodynamics is concerned with the location and rate of entry of drugs into the blood stream and how these molecules are absorbed, distributed and excreted. It is also concerned with the location and rate of distribution of out-of-take drugs in the body and with the out-of-take molecules themselves. Pharmacodynamics addresses the rate and timing of drug absorption and how to balance the permeability of drug molecules. This is important to the treatment of disease, because too much drug gets into the body can cause toxicity or drug resistance, whereas not enough can lead to drug insolubility.
Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of drugs at a molecular level. It looks at how drug molecules are put together to be able to function. It then looks at how these molecules move through the body. Pharmacokinetics addresses the kinetics of drug release and absorption, and the location and rate of excretion. This is helpful in the prevention and treatment of disease, and the management of side effects.
Pharmacodynamics affect how drugs behave at the cellular level. It can be studied at any stage of drug development by tracking cell culture, single cell production and in-vitro fertilization. It can also be studied pharmacologically with drugs that target the brain, such as antipsychotic medications. These drugs can affect the blood concentration of the drug during the whole course of action and also after the drug has been taken into the body.
A key issue in understanding Pharmacodynamics is measuring drug levels in the blood. High drug concentrations in the body are toxic. Drugs with low drug concentrations in the body are beneficial. Therefore, the key to good health is keeping drug levels in the blood as low as possible.
Pharmacodynamics and kinetics are closely linked. Pharmacodynamics is an area of study that deals with how drugs bind with the body’s tissues. Kinetics is the process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed throughout the body and how fast they enter and leave the cells. The key to success in drug design and development is to balance these two important concepts. Pharmaceutical engineers need to include both kinetics and pharmacodynamics in their drug discovery and development projects to address the needs of the pharmaceutical industry.