The need-oriented perspective defines motivation as the process by which a person is aware of a need to do something. It prepares a person to act. The behavioral influences theory focuses on the role of external stimuli in motivating behavior, such as rewards and punishments. This theory is the most common, but is often criticized for ignoring the role of internal drivers. For example, an individual might be motivated to stop smoking by the knowledge that they are at risk of lung cancer. But the motivation to quit could take time. The fear of a dying loved one can be a delayed motivator.
The third perspective focuses on intrinsic motivation, which is the basis for most human actions. It is associated with subjective well-being and is important for the physical, social, and cognitive development of individuals. It can be observed in the behaviour of animals. Those who are highly motivated will often engage in playful activities even without the expectation of a reward. This view is most popular among those who are motivated by money.
The fourth perspective looks at motivation as a psychological process. People choose behaviors in order to achieve some goal. But this type of motivation is rarely a result of pure desire. Instead, it stems from the context and the interaction surrounding a practice. The contextual factors are vital to understand how people choose to act, and the role of the environment is important, too. In this perspective, the subject is a carrier of multiple orientations, beliefs, experiences, and coping mechanisms, which creates a dynamic motivational structure. In some situations, these three approaches overlap, but in others, they separate. These are the two major perspectives on the topic of motivation.
The cognitive perspectives on motivation look at the way people interpret and evaluate their actions. According to this perspective, motivation is driven by the influence of cognitions. The brain responds to cognitive dissonance, a conflict between a person’s attitudes and their behavior. This dissonance is a powerful motivation, and is what drives a person to act. They use this to justify their behavior, and often feel guilty if they don’t.
The first two perspectives look at motivation in the context of evolutionary psychology. Physiological factors are not considered important. Intuition is a way of understanding how humans respond to external cues. A strong implicit drive is what propels a person to act. Intuitions affect our behavior by influencing our behavior. However, they also influence our emotions. In other words, the four major perspectives of motivation are influenced by our goals.
The first perspective, which is more popular, considers the autonomy of the self. Its primary focus is on the self. Intuition is defined as “self-directed” and is driven by the will to act. While this perspective is important, it is often difficult to find a consistent definition of motivation. It is also essential to remember that we are not merely the product of our desires, but the goal.
Relational perspectives describe motivation as the process of valuing things. Using the self-directed perspective, we value what is important. Aiming at a goal is a primary source of motivation. Using money to motivate ourselves is a secondary motive. In addition, our values are governed by our actions. For example, a person might work to make others happy. A person may choose to do something just because it feels like a person needs to do so.
Intrinsic motivation is the desire to complete a particular activity. This type of motivation is driven by internal factors. It requires self-determination, and it is based on the reward of the outcome. In other words, intrinsic motivation is self-directed. Intuitive reasons require a person to complete a task in order to meet an expectation. Therefore, the normative motives are important for pursuing a goal.