To understand what does pharmacology mean, we have to first define what it is. Simply put, pharmacology means the study of how drugs work at affecting the body. It also refers to the chemistry of how these drugs affect the body. Because of this wide definition, there are many branches of pharmacology, including endocrinology, hematology, neurology, gastroenterology and others. These branches all have to do with diseases and can be broken down further for each specific disease.
One of the most important questions to answer before taking a new medication is what does pharmacodynamics mean? A lot of research has been done on how various types of drugs affect the body and their effects. For example, a study done by a group of scientists revealed that Viagra, one of the most popular drugs for erectile dysfunction in men, does increase blood flow to the genital areas. However, the increase did not last long because of the excessive amount of oxygen needed by the body to continue erection. Since blood flow is increased, the amount of neurotransmitters such as noradrenalin and dopamine is also increased, which leads to an increased sense of sexual stimulation as well as harder, longer and more intense orgasms.
Pharmacodynamics is just one branch of biology that is related to how drugs work in the body. Another important branch of pharmacology is toxicology, which studies drug toxicity. Toxicology studies drug interactions and how they affect the system. Drug toxicologists also study drug interactions at the molecular level in various organs like the liver, kidney and nervous system. Some examples of drugs toxicology include antineoplastic agents, pesticides and antidepressants.
Pharmacodynamic or dose-related effects are what make drugs effective. Pharmacodynamic activities involve both actions and receptors at the cellular level. Some examples of drugs with pharmacodynamic activities are drugs that prevent inflammation, act on the nervous system and prevent disease. Understanding how does pharmacodynamics mean will help pharmacists and toxicologists come up with solutions for problems that arise when using certain medications.
One example is using antibiotics. Anti-inflammatory and antiseptic drugs can treat acute injuries that don’t heal. They reduce the number of microorganisms that inhabit wounds, stop the production of inflammatory cytokines and free radical molecules, reduce pain and swelling and reduce mortality. These effects can be desirable, but what about the effect of administering too many or an inappropriate number of these drugs? For example, antibiotics may reduce the risk of infection in healing patients, but when administered to sick children, mothers and rehabilitated patients, the antibiotic dose may actually cause harm. How does pharmacodynamics mean that administering antibiotics to children can have this detrimental effect?
Antibiotics are selective agents that attack bacteria by producing specific proteins or enzymes in response to specific infections. In theory, if the dosage of the drug is high enough, it will kill all bacteria. When it does this, it is left with nothing but dead bacteria. But, some forms of antibiotics, notably extended-spectrum antibiotics such as erythromycin, do not have any kind of selective mechanism and continue to attack all bacteria regardless of their size or rate of growth. In this way, it is possible that the same drug is killing bacteria that may not have a sufficient amount of antibiotic activity to cause harm.
Pharmacology and microbiology play well together. Both are involved in the management of infections and the treatment of diseases by the use of pharmacological agents. But, how do you know which drug is best for what condition? What does this have to do with good clinical practice questions? The use of antimicrobial agents involves both management of the illness and the selection of the right drug. While a health care team can make an educated guess about what the correct dose or combination of drugs might be for a patient, relying on experience in the field rather than on theoretical knowledge is a much more reliable practice.
Good clinical practice questions for a nurse to ask include whether the selected antibiotic is approved for use in the treatment of bacterial infections and whether the patient has previously been treated with this type of drug and had the infection cured. A physician can also ask the nurse about the side effects associated with the drug and whether he thinks that the antibiotic could cause adverse reactions in another way. Finally, a health care team should ask the nurse how well the drug is working and whether the patient is satisfied with the condition of his health. While a physician can only make an educated guess as to what a drug might do to a patient, a nurse can provide data that show what effect, if any, the drug is having on the patient’s health.