What does Pharmacokinetics mean? Pharmacokinetics, sometimes called Pharmacology, is a branch of pharmacology devoted to determine the metabolic fate of various substances administered to an animal. The substances of interest in this area include any organic compound that is able to enter the blood stream and interact with other molecules. This includes many common compounds such as vitamins, aspirin, ibuprofen, antacids, and chemotherapy drugs. A key goal of pharmacology is the determination of how well such compounds affect the body.
Many diseases and conditions affect people differently, leading to differences in the concentrations and excretion rates of different chemicals and nutrients over different time periods. Because of this, medical professionals have developed many tests to aid them in diagnosis, treatment and follow up. One such test that is useful in many circumstances is the urine pharmacokinetic profile, or UHPV for short. The test measures the amount of time that an analyzer will need to be left on a subject to cause a measurable level of acidity. Generally, a higher UHPV means faster drug absorption.
In addition to blood and urine samples, a clinical pharmacokinetic study may also require the use of oral fluid samples. These liquids contain salts, tinctures, and other concentrations of a compound that is required for proper dosing. The purpose of these studies is to characterize the concentration of a specific drug in a subject over a specific time frame. In general, a company looking to utilize a clinical pharmacokinetic service will be responsible for providing samples and performing testing.
The process of pharmacokinetics can be broken down into three separate subtopics. First, there is direct pharmacokinetics which measures how quickly a drug is released into the body. Direct pharmacokinetics is most often used in the diagnosis of diseases, such as diabetes. Subsequently, there is efflux and absorption pharmacokinetics which measures how fast a substance reaches the blood stream and reaches its target site. Finally, there is transport pharmacokinetics which measures how fast a material moves through various systems in the body and is often used in the diagnosis of serious diseases, such as those that involve the kidney.
The goal of any decent clinical pharmacokinetics service is to find a good balance between direct and efflux pharmacokinetics. While direct pharmacokinetics is important to the success of a drug development process, the slower rate of release and absorption should be balanced out with the speed of excretion. Ectorphins are a common drug that plays a major role in drug absorption. These hormones help to break down the fat in our body so that it may be absorbed into the bloodstream. A good UK pharmacokinetics manual will provide detailed descriptions of the various hormones that are involved in this process.
Another important aspect of achieving good pharmacokinetics is to understand the relationship between absorption and toxicity. While it may seem unlikely that one would have a beneficial effect on another, the absorption of a drug is directly related to its toxicity level. Therefore, understanding how drugs behave on the tissue that they are in can be very valuable when designing a drug-driven therapeutic study. For example, researchers may need to test the toxicity of a drug by either monitoring the absorption of the drug in plasma during a time course or testing the toxicity after the drug has been excreted from the body. It may be difficult for drug toxicologists to test drugs in these conditions, but a good UK Pharmacokinetics Manual can often help.
Pharmacokinetics also involves the administration of drugs, which requires a great deal of skill. A good pharmacokinetics manual will explain the various types of injection and transfer methodologies used in administering medication. This is especially important when designing an experimental pharmacokinetics study, as the use of various forms of administration can dramatically alter the concentration and drug concentration that are studied. As an example, a slow-acting intravenous medication needs to be injected at a slower rate than a tablet-based one in order to determine the drug concentration at the site of injection. A computer-assisted plasma transfer method is useful for monitoring the concentration of blood-borne agents during surgery.
Understanding the physiology of absorption is critical to developing a successful pharmacokinetics programme. A practitioner needs to be able to measure plasma concentrations, calculate rates of absorption and determine whether there is a suitable transport medium available. It is also necessary to understand any changes in drug concentrations that occur with the administration of a particular drug. This includes calculating any differences in concentrations between different media such as gel, subcutaneous, intramuscular or submicron areas. A comprehensive programme should include detailed information on all aspects of absorption, including the physical properties of various substances and the concentration of these substances in body fluids, for example, blood, urine or plasma. A strong in pharmaceuticals practice manual should be able to cover all these areas, in addition to discussing any variations in concentrations between various media.